The Delaware County, Indiana Courthouse (1969-1992)

“…Neither functional nor beautiful, but the object of much frustration, hopelessness, and public expense.”1

“…A disgrace to the community.”2

“The symbol of county government is lagging behind the times.”3

“The realization of the need for a new courthouse has been evident to most of our community for some time”4

–Spoiler Alert—

It’s one of my favorites.

The fourth Delaware County Courthouse, now the Delaware County Building

Call it hometown bias, call it a lack of architectural pedigree, or call it downright stupid of me. Call it however you’d like, but I like the building that we Munsonians call the Delaware County Courthouse! Even if county courts haven’t been held there for thirty years.

Regardless of my preferences, the fourth Delaware County Courthouse, erected in 1969, remains a controversial building nearly fifty years after its construction. One look at the stark, brutalist structure makes for an easy assumption that the quotations I led with mention it, especially in an age when historic courthouses across the state are being restored. In reality though, those italicized opinionsdescribed the courthouse’s aging and obsolete predecessor, an imposing Second Empire structure designed by Brentwood Tolan in 1887 and demolished to make way for the current building.

The 1887 courthouse can still more or less be appreciated in Warsaw, where the Kosciusko County courthouse is is a dead ringer for Muncie’s, or in Parke County, whose courthouse in Rockville would bring home the silver in a lookalike contest. That’s no accident, by the way- Brentwood’s father T.J. designed the courthouse in Warsaw, and both Tolans designed Rockville’s. After more than 130 years, the two old buildings seem to be holding up remarkably well.

The three-story, 80,000 square foot building was designed to accommodate the needs of up to 200,000 residents.

Most people today can’t fathom the shortsightedness of Delaware County’s decision to replace the old building, especially in exchange for what many think of as a featureless concrete box. Looking at the buildings in Warsaw and Rockville, I can’t say that I totally blame them, but there’s always more to the story than meets the eye. Let me explain.

By the time the 1960s rolled around, Muncie’s historic courthouse was not holding up well. The contemporary opinion of our outspoken public tends to attribute the sorry state of the old courthouse to governmental misfeasance or improper maintenance, but census figures paint a different story- the building was just overused. From 1890 to 1960, the population of Kosciusko County increased by a net margin of 45.6% to 40,000 total residents, all served by its 1884 courthouse that cost a hair less than $200,000 when built. Parke County’s population decreased by a net margin of 23.6% in the same timeframe- just under 14,000 people lived there in 1960 and were served by its $110,000 courthouse built in 1882.

Statues known as ‘Indian’, ‘Industry’, and ‘Agriculture’ statues were removed from the 1887 courthouse and now stand at the west front of its successor.

In contrast, the population of Delaware County in 1890 was 30,131. By 1960, the population had blown up to 110,938- an increase of 152%. The courthouse in Muncie -built in 1887 at a cost of $227,250.06- was stuck serving two times the combined amount of residents that its nearly identical twins in Warsaw and Rockville were individually required to hold up to.

Commissioners floated a replacement as early as 1938 when Delaware County’s population grew to nearly 74,000 people, but the effort was rebuked5. By 1944, The Muncie Evening Press noted that the bell inside the clock tower had fallen silent and the clocks no longer provided the same time on each face. 162 feet below, a broken limestone staircase was deemed a “monument to neglect” by the same newspaper.

Regardless of gravity of the situation, preservationists pointed towards an extensive interior renovation that allowed neighboring Grant County to keep its historic courthouse in Marion. Unfortunately, studies indicated that Muncie’s was essentially impossible to modernize due to the “unusual width of [its] bearing partitions.” Even so, any theoretical reconfiguration of its floor plan would have provided next to no additional space6.

The situation worsened: Forced to rent thousands of feet of offices elsewhere downtown to supplement the cramped quarters of the old courthouse, local officials watched enviously as Floyd County constructed the state’s first City-County Building- a structure that not only consolidated all county offices under one roof, but sparked a rejuvenation of downtown New Albany as well7.

Proponents of the new courthouse believed that the building’s east wing, pictured, could be extended to anchor a planned Walnut Street pedestrian mall.

Fed up, county officials finally issued $2.9 million in bonds to construct the new courthouse. Delaware County citizens finally came around and the project was enthusiastically funded. The old courthouse met the wrecking ball in late 1966.

Its replacement was planned for the future and able to serve a population of 200,000. New York consultants Becker & Becker recommended a minimum of 57,000 square feet across four floors to accommodate seven new county offices moving in from rented quarters. Extra space in the auditor’s office was to be allocated for the anticipated use of computers. A drive-thru window would be incorporated for the treasurer’s office.8

Construction took two years and upon completion, it was clear that the architects had designed a strikingly modern building, both visually and functionally. A concrete structure featuring narrow windows and a cantilevered east wing, the fourth Delaware County Courthouse was heralded by civic and business leaders as a boon to Muncie’s attempts at a revitalized downtown. The new courthouse held 80,000 square feet over three stories and a basement, and could accommodate additional floors if ever needed. An expansion to the east was conceptualized in order to anchor the north end of a planned Walnut Street pedestrian mall.9

The L-shaped corner layout of the fourth Delaware County Courthouse enabled the construction of an expansive, concrete plaza- a then-modern interpretation of the old-fashioned courthouse square.

Despite the designers’ foresight and the optimism of local officials, the 1969 courthouse only served in that capacity for twenty-three years. In April of 1992, county courts moved to the much-maligned Delaware County Justice Center, a building so onerous that after two years of delays, $6 million in cost overruns, and 526 change orders, two judges hated it so much that they refused to set foot in it and vacate the older building10.

Eventually there was order in the court, and with that said, the fourth Delaware County Courthouse continues to stand proudly even if it no longer houses the judicial system. Today, it houses many county offices.

The building also stands as a fine example of the brutalist style for fans of modern architecture, and for fans of traditional courthouse design it serves as a cautionary tale- after all, it only took the citizens of Muncie about fifty years to start kicking around the idea of replacing their own traditional courthouse.

The plaza of the former courthouse was renovated to include a ‘green infrastructure’ that includes a rain garden in 2011.

In contrast, the fourth Delaware County Courthouse isn’t going anywhere. Still serving the community as the administrative center of county government, the building also serves as a unique contribution to Indiana’s portfolio of courthouse architecture. Although it doesn’t feature many of the characteristics of a classic courthouse, I’ve long wanted to pull the ultimate troll card and get the building listed on the National Register of Historic Places! Whenever its final day comes, I suspect the outcry over its loss will equal or surpass that of its predecessor….at least from me.

Delaware County (pop. 117,671, 14/92)
Muncie (pop. 70.085).
15/92 photographed
Built: 1969
Cost: $2.4 million ($15.67 million in 2016)
Architect: Hamilton, Graham Associates and George W. Cox
Style: Brutalist
Courthouse Square: Shelbyville Square
Height: 3 stories
Current use: County offices
Photographed: 8/15/15, 7/18/16

Sources Cited
1 Wade, E.C. “She’s Opposed to New Courthouse” The Muncie EveningPress [Muncie] September 17 1965: 4. Print.
2 “Commissioners Tell Courthouse Plans” The Muncie Star [Muncie] September 8 1965: 1. Print.
3 “’Citizens Army Launches Petition Drive for New Courthouse” The Muncie Evening Press [Muncie] September 10 1965: 14. Print.
4“Courthouse Or New Jail Here? No Decision!” The Muncie Evening Press  [Muncie] May 20 1938: 1. Print.
5 “Taxpayers Association Backs New Courthouse” The Muncie Star [Muncie] September 23 1965: 8. Print.
6 “Plans for New Courthouse Get Labor Council’s Full Support” The Muncie Star [Muncie] September 8 1965: 1. Print.
7 “New Albany Builds Remedy for Decay” The Muncie Evening Press [Muncie] July 9, 1965: 1. Print.
8 “Needs Outlined for Courthouse In Space Study” The Muncie Evening Press [Muncie] July 12, 1966: 1. Print.
9 “That New Cornerstone Is a Milestone, Too” The Muncie Evening Press [Muncie] October 25, 1968: 5. Print.
10 “Justice” The Muncie Star [Muncie] April 19, 1992: 14. Print.

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